Supplementary Notes on the Overturning of Capitalism
The inspiration for the following notes is Heidegger's The
Metaphysical Foundations of Logic.1 Heidegger's focus was philosophical
logic in general; mine here is concentrated on the logic of Capitalism.
The overturning of Capitalism is only a matter of time. An inquiry into the
whatness, howness, and whyness of this primordial matter is beyond the scope of this book.
I will deal with it at another time. Meanwhile, I offer these notes.
The Characterization of Capitalism
The philosophical idea of Capitalism is defective. Its darkness and
emptiness are manifest everywhere in history. This fact can be understood from the
following threefold characterization:
- Capitalism does not know how to create wealth without lordship
and bondage. Slavery and servitude have been its essential tools and trademarks
since ancient times.
- Capitalism separates beings artificially into masters and servants--rich
and poor, lenders and borrowers.
- Capitalism serves by design the narcissistic desires and interests of a few classes of
beings at the expense of the Being of all beings.2
The Basic Problematic of Capitalism
Most people do not know what Capitalism is really all about. They are dazzled and
overwhelmed by the false and deceptive buzz, glitter, sophistry, propaganda, and pleasures
of the marketplace. They do not know that
Capitalist Being is
indentured servitude pure and simple. It is therefore central to Capitalism to hide
the problem of being and the problem of freedom--the
problem of human existence3 under
THE BASIC PROBLEMATIC OF CAPITALISM IS THE
ALLOTMENT AND DISTRIBUTION OF JUSTICE AND ADVANTAGES4
--AND, THEREFORE, OF
FREEDOM AND WEALTH.
The Foundations and Principles of Capitalism
What are the foundations of Capitalism? What conditions guarantee its possibility?
These questions can be answered from and through an understanding of the principles of
Capitalism. But what are these principles? There are four fundamental principles of
- The principle of net advantages. Darwinistic net advantages are
selectively concentrated in a few classes of beings. The allotment and distribution of
advantages has little to do with skills, understanding, knowledge, merit, etc., --but can be based on blood, "race-quality,"5
aristocratic breeding, class, cast, religion, ethnicity, asset-size, etc.
- The principle of the rule of law. The rule of law has little to do with
nature, lawfulness, or justice.
The law, by design,
enframes6 the net advantages of lordship over
bondage--of lenders over borrowers, of lessors over
lessees, of landlords over tenants, of producers over consumers, of employers over
THE RULE OF LAW IS THE MECHANISM TO GOVERN, REGULATE, AND ENFORCE THE ALLOTMENT AND
DISTRIBUTION OF JUSTICE AND ADVANTAGE.
Nowhere has the rule of law been more deceitfully abused than in empire building--political and economic.
- The principle of the infallibility of the marketplace. Capitalist doctrine posits
that the essence of freedom is freedom to buy and sell without coercion. The so-called
"technique of the market place"7 is supposedly
a necessary condition for freedom. But the facts of the marketplace unconceal it as a
rigged "game of catallaxy"8 where beings appear
to be free to buy and sell--when in truth their Being is being
INDENTURED SERVITUDE IS THE PRIMORDIAL ECONOMIC MODE OF
EXISTENCE OF BEINGS IN THE CAPITALIST MARKETPLACE. INDENTURED SERVITUDE IS THE
FIRST TRUTH OF FACT OF THE MARKETPLACE AND ITS ESSENTIAL ATTRIBUTE.
INDENTURED SERVITUDE IS DETERMINED AND REGULATED IN ADVANCE THROUGH THE ENFRAMENT
OF NET ADVANTAGES IN THE LAW.
- The principle of usury. Usury makes currency increase; but its inner hidden
intention is nothing but Being-by-bondage. Fictive money
created by the "money-thought"9 of lordship is
transformed into real money through entrepreneurial bondage. This explains why usury has
been hated since time immemorial.10
The Priesthood of Capitalism
The concretion of dominion is possible only through a veiled priesthood--the essential infrastructure and administrative machinery of
Capitalism. The priesthood performs three functions:
- Financial intermediation. Banks act as gatekeepers between Capital and
borrowers--between lordship and bondage, between fortune and
misfortune. The allotment and distribution of bank-money as loans and credit is
essentially controlled through banks and trust companies for Capitalists. In modern times,
banks have replaced churches as gatekeepers to fortune or misfortune--to heaven or hell.11
- Manipulation of beliefs. This task is performed through entertainment and by,
with, or through the Media. The Media can easily be infiltrated, controlled with lines of
credit and debt, and used to influence and manipulate beliefs--and
to label, disapprove, or dispraise the opponents of rapacious Capitalism. An aura of
authority and a prestige system12 are necessary
conditions for the possibility of civilized Capitalism.
- Administration and control. This task is performed on behalf of Capital by
government. The few possible governments are preselected
and financed by Capital. In other words, the options and opportunities of the electorate--the immense majority--are limited by the
narrow preselection of small groups of Capitalists, their representatives, and
agents. The appearance of freedom is maintained through "free" elections.
The Overturning and Dismantling of Capitalism
The overturning and dismantling of Capitalism is possible only from and out of a
genuine understanding of its archaic roots and Empirical-Utilitarian-Darwinistic grounds.
The biophilosophical foundations of Capitalism and the progression of especially
the Anglo-American rule of law are crudely depicted in Plate 8-1.
The Plate illustrates how Darwinism provided Capitalists with fraudulent scientific
legitimacy for Animalism in the marketplace. More importantly, it explains why the
benefits of the Enlightenment were mostly plundered as technology and through technology
by Darwinistic Capital.
The self-conceit of Capitalism was intoxicated by Darwin and his theory.
Why? Because the evolution of Enlightenment could finally be shunted and stunted by the
"Darwinisticism"13 of Capital. The prostitution of reason and science
should explain why Darwin would remain "a sick man"14
for the last forty years of his life; why John Stuart Mill would suffer an "acute depression"15 after discovering the emptiness
and futility of Utilitarian Benthamism; and why, more recently, Friedrich Hayek, a
co-winner of the Nobel Prize in Economics, would be so badly misled about the "Age of
When Empiricism debases a priori thinking, then, the possible ideal
solution, which transcends all human experience, can be debased or depreciated for
utilitarian benefit or profit. We may never be able to construct an ideal
"circle"; but so long as our mind can think the a priori idea of
the ideal "circle", we can strive to create ever more perfect circles. Hayek
concluded his three-volume Law, Legislation and Liberty with the assertion "Man
is not and never will be master of his fate . . . "17 Yes, Man may
never master his Destiny, but Enlightenment--thinking
and reasoning about what is right and good--is still
the only way to improve human Destiny--and the
marketplace and the justice system. Only animalism and archaic thinking--superstition, ignorance, narcissism, stupidity, greed, etc.--stand in the way of Man's progress.
Many thinkers and economists in business-sponsored think tanks and corporately-funded
university research programs continue to serve the orthodoxy of their Capitalist masters18--hopefully, not at great expense to their souls and to
The "dictatorship of money"19 in Western
Democracies cannot endure. In The Decline of the West, Spengler wrote "[m]oney
is overthrown and abolished by blood."20 This
assertion would shortly be followed by World War II. Does this mean that World War III is
around the corner? Not if Capitalism is surpassed. The
dismantling of the British Empire--from Hong Kong to Palestine
to Ireland to Qu--bec--may presage
new beginning. But what if rapacious global "dictatorship of money"
replaced Empire? Then what would people do? Would they despair of their economic
nothingness or would they entangle Capitalism everywhere with double
runs on banks and on the justice system? Would they accept global subjection
through economic bondage or would they declare
World War III on the
Capitalism can be surpassed. The horizons of Capitalism can be opened and expanded.
Heidegger argued that "[b]eing-free . . . is understanding oneself out of
possibility."21 Therefore, to attain the highest
wealth and the highest freedom for all,
the possibilities and
choices of Being must be multiplied and diversified.
Unfortunately, this is not about to happen. Without the pure will to power
of all the electorate, legislation will not change radically.22-23
Net advantages will continue to be bioselectively restricted. Capitalism will remain
grounded in Being-by-bondage. Access to justice and advantages--to
education, equity capital, loans, science and technology, markets, protection from
deception, fraud and coercion--will continue to be limited to
"upperdogs."24 Hundreds of millions of
indentured citizens will continue to abdicate Liberty for "television and
hamburgers."25 And then what? Then, the unthinkable
happens . . .
|1 On the Being of beings,
see Martin Heidegger (1978), The Metaphysical Foundations of Logic, translated by
Michael Heim, 1984.
On Aristotle's characterization
of philosophy and on the basic question of man, see Heidegger, ibid., at
9-14 and 15-18.
On the problem of human existence, see Heidegger, ibid.,
The notion of justice as the "supreme
representative of life itself" is due to Nietzsche. The essence of justice as "advantage
. . . allotted to someone in a distribution, before
the actual dividing takes place" is Heidegger's interpretation of Nietzsche's
insight. See Martin Heidegger, Nietzsche, Vol. III: The Will to Power as Knowledge
and as Metaphysics, translated by Joan Stambaugh, David Farrell Krell, Frank A. Capuzzi,
edited, with Notes and Analysis, by David Farrell Krell, at 137-149 (Truth as Justice),
especially 145 and 148.
5 On "race-quality" and on "the conflict between
money and blood," see Oswald Spengler, The Decline of the West, An
Abridged Edition by Helmut Werner, with a new Introduction by H. Stuart Hughes, 1991, at
409-415, especially 414; the English Abridged Edition was prepared by Arthur Helps, from
the translation by Charles Francis Atkinson.
6 The concept of "Enframing" is Heidegger's invention.
See Martin Heidegger, The Question Concerning Technology and Other Essays,
translated and with an Introduction by William Lovitt, 1977, at 19.
7 On "the technique of the marketplace," see Milton
Friedman, Capitalism and Freedom, with the assistance of Rose D. Friedman, 1962 and
1982, at 13.
Hayek's expression; see Friedrich A. Hayek, Law,
Legislation and Liberty, Vol. 2, 1976, at 107-132 (The Market Order or Catallaxy).
9 Spengler's expression; see Oswald Spengler, The Decline of
the West, An Abridged Edition by Helmut Werner, with a new Introduction by H. Stuart
Hughes, 1991, at 413.
10 Usury has been condemned partially in the Old Testament and
absolutely in the New Testament and in the Koran. See, for example, Leviticus 25:36-37,
St. Mark 11:15-18, and The Cow 2:275.
For insight into how priesthood has historically acted as
gatekeeper to heaven or hell and how it has manipulated beliefs, see Thomas Hobbes, Behemoth,
edited by Ferdinand T--nnies, with an Introduction by Stephen Holmes, 1990. See especially
Holmes' Introduction at xliii-xliv (Gatekeeper-Priests) and xxxix ("psychological
manipulation" of beliefs). For a discussion of Capitalism as Religion of Money, see
my World War III Against the Money Trust? (Book I, Chapter 20).
On "social control through prestige,"
"prestige allocation,", "subversion," and "the problems of
justice," see William J. Goode, The Celebration of Heroes: Prestige as a Social
Control System, 1978.
On Darwinisticism, see Morse Peckham, Darwinism and
Darwinisticism, in Darwin, 2nd ed., edited by Philip Appleman, 1970, 1979, at
297-304. (Victorian Studies, III, 1959).
According to Peter Medawar, the Nobel Prize Winner for Medicine
in 1960, Darwin was "a sick man" for the last 40 years of his life. See Peter B.
Medawar, The Strange Case of the Spotted Mice, 1996, at 52-58.
See John Stuart Mill and Jeremy Bentham, Utilitarianism and
Other Essays, edited with an Introduction, by Alan Ryan, 1987, at 34-36 (Mill's
Education--And His Disillusionment With 'Benthamism').
See Friedrich A. Hayek, Law, Legislation and Liberty,
Vol. 2, 1976, at 175-176 (The Tables Turned).
Ibid., at 176.
Mill wrote: " . . . in the English Universities no
thought can find place, except that which reconcile itself with orthodoxy." See John
Stuart Mill (October 1852), Whewell on Moral Philosophy, ibid., at 228-229.
19 Spengler's expression; see Oswald Spengler, The Decline of
the West, An Abridged Edition by Helmut Werner, with a new Introduction by H. Stuart
Hughes, 1991, at 414.
20 Ibid., at 414.
See Martin Heidegger (1978), The Metaphysical Foundations of
Logic, translated by Michael Heim, 1984, at 158.
22 Hegel held that "[t]he law is . . . grounded not in the
will of a particular individual, but is valid in and for itself; it is the absolute pure
will of all which has the form of immediate being" [italics in the original]. See
G.W.F. Hegel, Phenomenology of Spirit (1807), translated by A.V. Miller, with
Analysis of the Text and Foreword by J.N. Findlay, 1977, at 256-262 (Reason as Testing
Laws), especially 260.
23 "The Will to Power" is Nietzsche's
"Attempt at a Revaluation of All Values." See Friedrich Nietzsche, The Will
to Power, translated by Walter Kaufmann and R.J. Hollingdale, edited with Commentary
by Walter Kaufmann, 1967, at 3.
24 The inspiration for the expression "upperdogs" is the
title of an article by D.R. Songer and R.S. Sheehan, Who Wins on Appeal? Upperdogs and
Underdogs in the United States Courts of Appeals, Journal of Political Science, 36,
1992, at 239 and 243-246 (U.S. Court of Appeals decisions, 1986).
In Brave New World Revisited, Huxley wrote about human
"dodos" as follows: "The cry of 'Give me
television and hamburgers; but don't bother me with the responsibilities of liberty',
may give place, under altered circumstances, to the cry of 'Give me
Liberty or give me death'" [my emphasis]. See Aldous Huxley, Brave New
World Revisited, with an Introduction by David Bradshaw, 1958 and 1994, at 177.
FOUNDATIONS OF CAPITALISM
OF THE RULE OF LAW
Biophilosophical Foundations of Capitalism: Progression of the Rule of LawThe
conceptual progression of the rule of law is illustrated schematically--from Animalism to the Overturning of
Capitalism. The emphasis is on Anglo-American Capitalism and law. The dismantling of
Capitalism consists essentially in shifting net advantages--from a few selective classes of
beings (Big Capitalists, Big Banks, Big Business, and Big Government) to the Being of all
beings. The Overturning is nothing but a massive struggle of Enlightenment and Reason
against the darkness of Capitalist Darwinisticism.
[Copyright -- 1998 by
MACROKNOW INC. All rights reserved.]
Terms and Conditions before accessing or
using this Macroknow Website.
Copyright Â© 1998-2008 by Edward E. Ayoub. All Rights Reserved.
Copyright Â© 1998-2008 by Macroknow Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Digital Art Copyright Â© 1998-2008 by Edward Thomas Matthew Ayoub. All Rights Reserved.
Macroknow, Macroknow BookView, Macroknow
i-Books, Macroknow i-Services, Macroknow WorldHood, and the Macroknow
logos are trademarks of Macroknow Inc.
Other product, service, or company names mentioned in this
Web may be the trademarks of their respective owners.