and Technology After The Year 2000
What can we conclude about
the future of Science and Technology? Earlier, using Heideggerian logic, I unconcealed
Capitalism as the primal technology for dominating Man as servant. Gargantuan debts
are nothing but indentured servitude. In Book I, using Hobbesian logic, I revealed
Capitalism as a Religion of Money (banks as churches, bankers as clergy, loan applications
as auricular confessions, bankruptcies as excommunications, credit bureaus as index
librorum prohibitorum, etc.). These two aspects expose Capitalism as a defective world
order. Capitalism as priesthood has endured; but its permanence is not secure. This
is because Capitalism has a formidable enemy -- Reason. It was Galileo's Science that
challenged the priesthood of the 16th and 17th centuries; it was Science that
defeated the Ptolemaic doctrine of the Holy Office. Capitalism, as priesthood, as
ultimate being-in-and-for-itself, despises Science. The
fiercest War of Capitalism will be against Reason. The stakes
are immense; the loot is nothing less than the control of Life itself. How can
Capitalism wage this War? It can:
- Indenture whole populations
through loans to governments.
- Hijack Education and
Research. Whole generations of students-as-minds can be indentured with loans.
- Privatize, own, and control
Science and Technology. High-tech firms and laboratories can be infiltrated during their
incubation period -- with money or venture capital as Trojan horse, etc.
But Capitalism, cunning
and deceitful as it can be, will fail. Why? Because its Darwinistic powers are far
outstripped by the Darwinian power of Truth. The new millennium will bring forth a new
consciousness of Being -- Intelligence, Knowledge, Freedom, Will, and Energy --, a new
perspective, a new openness, and a "looking beyond narrow perspectives."1 The confines of Capitalism are
simply too narrow, too Ptolemaic -- money cannot be the center of
life. Capitalism, therefore, cannot be "the proper way to be free."2 It must be surpassed. The trinity
of Capitalism -- Usurer-Entrepreneur-Technology3 -- must be transcended with the
trinity of Mind, Life, and Justice.
We must redirect
Technology. Technology cannot continue to be an instrument of dominion over Man; it must
become the primal instrument for multiplying the opportunities of Man. Increased
opportunities means expanded horizons -- expanded freedom and progress. The same
technology that allows banks to replace tellers with interactive multimedia software,
allows society to replace bank CEOs with software robots -- and save money. Science
and technology must be redirected to enhance life itself -- not just the economic
interests of a few masters. To be sure, technology will eliminate jobs or replace
full-time jobs with part-time jobs (for an example, see Plate 4-1).
Justice dictates that such elimination means more leisure for all -- not just for masters.
Science must never be the exclusive property of Big Business or Big Government. Science
is Man's Darwinian advantage, and Technology his selective tool. Technology cannot be
separated from Justice. Darwinian evolution means that intelligent computer-controlled
devices will obsolete the Ptolemaic in both Justice and Capitalism. There is no escape:
intelligent machines will replace servitude (masters can unplug the machines; but
servants-as-the-electorate can unplug the masters). We must protect ourselves from the
- The excessive concentration
of ownership and control of assets. This concentration can be most dangerous -- because it
ultimately breeds dirigisme and economic totalitarianism. The needs and
motives of Big Business are not necessarily those of society. As a matter of fact, the
needs and motives of Big Business are often extremely divergent from those of society.
Consider automobile safety, for example. For several decades, the auto industry has wanted
to sell cars without the burdens of safety legislation.4 The "philosophy of driver
responsibility" prevailed until the total number of automobile recalls was tallied.5 This philosophy was debunked by
Ralph Nader in Unsafe at Any Speed.6 The philosophy
of borrower responsibility is as absurd as the philosophy of driver responsibility.
Apparently, borrowers are still fully responsible for their loans, even if bank
actions destabilize, directly or indirectly, whole sectors of the National economy,
including borrowers. Bank loan safety legislation is long
The allegiance of Big
Business is not to society, but to major stockholders. Big Business wants the rights and
privileges of a para-government -- without a government's social responsibility and
- The "megamachine."7 Technology as
"megamachine" for dominating economic transactions can be used to dominate human
affairs. It is not the power of the machine that must be feared; it is the unfettered
power of the masters who own or control it that must be feared. Consider health care
transactions for a moment. Should the quality, quantity, and price of medical care
or of health insurance be determined and controlled by the interests of a few
Capitalists through large-scale insurance companies or banks?
- Capitalism out of control --
masquerading as technology out of control.8 To be sure, the influence of top
scientists on public policy is huge; but it is not disproportionate with the benefits from
scientific discovery. President Eisenhower's warning against the danger that "public
policy could itself become captive of a scientific-technological elite"9 was off target. The danger is not
from scientists and engineers with the brainpower to master nature, but from rapacious
Capitalists who know how to dominate Man as servitude pure and simple.
- Gross misuse and abuse of
artificial intelligence. Software -- like laws -- can be preprogrammed, not just with
viruses, but with the veiled intention to secure advantage, to
deceive, or to defraud.
tale, inspired by a recent British election (1992), Roger Penrose, a distinguished
mathematician at the University of Oxford, described how such software can be used to
pervert the results of an election.10
computerization and networking of flawed corporate administrative procedures can have
globally devastating consequences.
- The plundering and poisoning
of the environment for Life. Imagine the horrible consequences of privatizing the air you
breathe and the water you drink -- the horrible consequences of privatizing Life.
The connection between
Freedom and Justice must become the central preoccupation of all governments. Nietzsche
was absolutely right: justice is "the supreme representative of life itself."11 Governments must broaden the
"horizon of advantage"12 -- or they will not survive. Net
advantages cannot be concentrated arbitrarily in Big Business and Big Government, at
the expense of the Citizen.
Mathematicians have known
for some time now, that the theorems of mathematics are enframed in axioms and rules of
logical inference. We may not be able to automate the procedure for certifying the
correctness of theorems; but we do know that axioms enframe theorems. Similarly, we may
not be able to predict or compute with certainty the future of a people, but we do know
that laws enframe the people's destiny (for illustrations, see Plates 4-2 and 4-3).
Legislatives that do not understand this Truth risk annihilation or extinction. The
greatest challenge for Science will, therefore, be the discovery of that Legislation which
will be most conducive to increasing Freedom and Wealth for all.
ENFRAME THE DESTINY OF A PEOPLE.
THEY DEFINE THE STATES THAT CAN BE OCCUPIED BY THE PEOPLE (FREE, INDENTURED, OR
SLAVE), AND THE PROBABILITIES OF TRANSITION BETWEEN THESE STATES. LAWS
ALLOT THE DISTRIBUTION OF ADVANTAGE13 -- AND,
THEREFORE, OF POWER. THE SOLOMONIC CREED [Proverbs 22:7], AS ENFRAMENT OF SERVITUDE
IN CAPITALISM, MUST BE THROWN OUT BY THE ELECTORATE -- FOR GOOD. THE
GOAL OF LAWS MUST BE TO INCREASE WEALTH AND TO ELIMINATE BONDAGE. THE CHALLENGE TO
SCIENCE IS TO MAKE THIS POSSIBLE.
Heidegger's expression in an analysis of the connection, made by Nietzsche, between
freedom and justice; see Martin Heidegger, Nietzsche, Vol. III: The Will to Power
as Knowledge and as Metaphysics, translated by Joan Stambaugh, David Farrell Krell, Frank
A. Capuzzi, edited, with Notes and an Analysis, by David Farrell Krell, at 148.
2 Heidegger's understanding of
Nietzsche's thought of "'justice' . . . as the proper way to be free"; ibid.,
3 For Oswald
Spengler: the trinity consists of "the entrepreneur, the engineer and the
factory-worker"; the entrepreneur and the factory-worker "become slaves . .
. of the machine"; the danger comes from "the dictature of money"; and the
"battle is the despairing struggle of technical thought to maintain its liberty
against money-thought." See Oswald Spengler, The Decline of the West, An
Abridged Edition by Helmut Werner, with a new Introduction by H. Stuart Hughes, 1991, at
409-415; the English Abridged Edition was prepared by Arthur Helps, from the translation
by Charles Francis Atkinson.
4 See Joel W.
Eastman, Styling vs. Safety, 1984.
5 Ibid., at
6 Ibid., at
7 See Lewis Mumford, The
Myth of the Machine, 1966 and 1967, at 188-194 (The Design of the Megamachine),
228-231 (Reactions Against the Megamachine), 231-233 and (Curbs on the Megamachine).
8 For a study of
"technological politics," see Langdon Winner, Autonomous Technology, Technics-out-of-control
as a Theme in Political Thought, 1977.
9 Quoted by Don K.
Price, from The New York Times, January 22, 1961; see Don K. Price, The
Scientific Establishment, in Scientists and National Policy Making, edited by Robert
Gilpin and Christopher Wright, 1964, at 19-20.
10 Roger Penrose, Shadows
of the Mind, 1994, at 403-406 (The Puzzling Election).
11 From a note by
Nietzsche; quoted and analyzed in Martin Heidegger, Nietzsche, Vol. III: The Will
to Power as Knowledge and as Metaphysics, translated by Joan Stambaugh, David Farrell
Krell, Frank A. Capuzzi, edited, with Notes and an Analysis, by David Farrell Krell, at
expression for "Justice, as the function of a panoramic power that looks
beyond the narrow perspectives of good and evil"; quoted and analyzed in Heidegger, ibid.,
Heidegger, Nietzsche, Vol. III: The Will to Power as Knowledge and as Metaphysics,
translated by Joan Stambaugh, David Farrell Krell, Frank A. Capuzzi, edited, with Notes
and an Analysis, by David Farrell Krell, at 148.
EMPLOYMENT IN THE YEAR 2000 AND BEYOND
FORECASTS FOR CANADA'S LARGEST BANK
||Part-time to full-time
employment ratios, derived from empirical observations for the period from 1978 through
||Speculative forecasts for
the period from 1996 through 2050, based on four weighted least-squares methods
||Average of four forecasts
Forecasts for Part-Time Employment at the Royal Bank of Canada in the Year 2000 and BeyondThis Plate
reveals the underlying trend for part-time employment at Canada's largest bank for
the period from 1978 through 1995. Two questions are explored:
- Part-time employment, as
percent of total employment, has increased significantly. What does this mean for the
future of full-time employment at the bank?
- The bank provided data on
part-time employment in its Annual Reports until 1995. It did not do so in its 1996 Annual
It is impossible to answer
the first question with certainty. The bank, for one thing, may not exist in the future in
its current form. It can merge with or acquire another bank; or, it can be acquired by a
bigger and stronger bank -- just as Royal Trust was.1 Regression analyses can be used to predict
the employment mix; but their adequacy is limited to the period for which there is data
(arrow a). Good models can approximate
reality; but they all have limited domains of adequacy. Therefore, any extrapolations (for
the years spanned by arrow b) must be interpreted with extreme caution. In any case, one thing is absolutely clear:
the bank's empirical ratio Pt of part-time employment to total
employment, on a full-time equivalent (FTE) basis, has increased significantly,-- from
5.53% in 1978 to 16.64% in 1995.2 This means that full-time
employment dropped -- from 94.47% in 1978 to 83.36% in 1995. Could this trend explain
why the bank chose not to include data on part-time employment in its 1996 Annual Report?
Freudian metapsychology suggests that the withholding of information can be a
manifestation of a struggle against resistances3 -- of a blocking of analysis.
If, to use the language of psychoanalysis, the bank is struggling against
resistances (real or possible, actual or virtual4), then it has to work them through.5 How? Here's one way. First, the bank
must use analytic strategies to quantify the relationship between technology and jobs.
Then, it must confront what can be repressed from consciousness -- e.g., fear and
anxiety regarding stability and security of jobs. Finally, it must understand and
communicate the "topographical," "dynamic," and "economic"6 metapsychological factors affecting
employment and technology. How can the bank estimate its future employment mix?
Many weighted least-squares models7 can be used. Four models are
- The linear probability
- The logit model.
- The probit (or normit)
- The Gompit model.
The predictions for each
model (estimated parameters, standard deviations, coefficients of determination) are
tabulated below (the average of the four models is shown as surface graph c). All four models predict a substantial
increase in part-time employment. The predictions are meaningful only if (1)
the employment trend continues unchanged, (2) the model is good, and (3) the predictions
are not inconsistent with other relevant trends.8 The regression analyses suggest that
the impact of technology on future employment can be formidable -- a few decades from
now, more than half of the employees could be working part-time. Corporations will continue to use
technology, not just to increase productivity, but to substitute machines,
telecommunications equipment, intelligent software, etc., for employees. If
unchecked, a nearly exponential concentration of global financial powers (fortified by
worldwide electronic networks, databases, and legislation) can lead to unprecedented
turmoil. If the allegiance of Capital is to money only, then systematic
substitution of technology for humans cannot escape the scrutiny of employment contracts
-- and of legislation. Technology and globalization cannot be divorced from accountability
and responsibility to community. People are better
served with stable and secure jobs than with increased indenture and charity. Banks and other institutions must work-through and communicate, openly and
intelligibly, the future of employment in each and every community served.
Sources and Notes:1
See Royal Bank Annual Report 1993, Part Two, at 36
(Acquisition of Royal Trust).
2 Royal Bank annual reports (full-time employment, and total employment on a
full-time equivalent basis, as at October 31; and non-interest expenses, for years ended
3 See Sigmund Freud, On Metapsychology: The Theory of
Psychoanalysis, Volume 11, translated under the general editorship of James Strachey,
compiled and edited by Angela Richards. London, England: Penguin Books Ltd., 1991. Angela
Richards and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis, 1955, 1957, 1958, 1961, 1962, 1964, at
174-178 (Various Meanings of 'The Unconscious' -- The Topographical Point of View), and
275 ('metapsychological' factors: 'economic,' 'topographical,' and 'dynamic').
4 On the similarity/difference between the real
and the possible, and between the actual and the virtual, see Gilles
Deleuze, Difference and Repetition, translated by Paul Patton, 1968 and 1994, at
5 See Paul Ricoeur, The Conflict of Interpretations,
edited by Don Ihde. Paris, France: Editions du Seuil, 1969. Evanston, IL: Northwestern
University Press, 1974, at 177-195 (Technique and Nontechnique in Interpretation,
translated by Willis Domingo), especially 177-185.
6 See 3 above..
7 G.S. Maddala, Limited-Dependent and Qualitative
Variables in Econometrics, 1983, at 28-32 (minimum chi-square methods).
8 For the period from 1978 through 1995, two trends
corroborate the above predictions. As percent of total non-interest expenses, (1) human
resources expenses (compensation plus benefits) decreased, and
(2) computer rental and maintenance expenses plus telecommunications expenses increased.
9 The standard normal distribution function
F is defined as follows:
where the integration is from -¥ to z.
[Copyright © 1998 by
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|HOW A NEW WORLD ORDER
CAN INDENTURE OR ENSLAVE A FREE PEOPLE
How a New World
Order Can Indenture or Enslave a Free People
This Plate illustrates how a hypothetical system of laws, which enframes the social and
economic order of a people or country, can impact their time-evolution -- or history.1 The graphs show what can happen to a
free people after a new exploitative legal order is introduced by a powerful,
cunning minority. The graphs demonstrate why electorates must always remain vigilant,
and why societies need a system of checks and balances -- to prevent the
establishment of indentured servitude. Most important, the graphs demonstrate how deeply
serious the responsibility of legislators is. The assumptions are:
- Initially, all the people are
- The new order is imposed at
time 0 by a powerful, cunning, Darwinistic minority. It is imposed and perpetuated
through the use of despotic force, wicked oppression, coercion, deceptive trickery, hocus
pocus, or seductive propaganda.
- The new order, which aims at
the division and misappropriation of labor, creates two new states: INDENTURED SERVANT, and SLAVE. Following Aristotle,2 a man is a slave if he, or if all
his economic output, are an article of property of another man, a corporation, or the
State. A man is indentured if a portion of his economic output is an
article of property of another man, a corporation, or the State.
- Breeding rates do not
depend on state (FREE, INDENTURED SERVANT, or SLAVE). But state is inherited. Thus the
son or daughter of a slave is a slave.
- The dominion over the
indentured servant and the slave is absolute. People who fall into indentured servitude or
slavery are tame, timid, and unconditionally obedient -- they are subjugated: they cannot,
or do not, rebel against their masters.
- The hypothetical new implicate
order of the society -- its destiny --, favors the cunning minority. It is encoded in
the form of a fixed transition probability matrix P (a 3-state finite Markov chain). The
cunning consists in divorcing work performance from reward or payment -- in taking
unmerited possession of other people's property, in controlling prices and lending rates,
in attributing causality to time and chance, etc.
Pij stands for the
probability of the transition from the ith state to the jth state (Pij is the element at the
intersection of the ith line and jth column of the matrix). The total number of possible
states is three: FREE, INDENTURED SERVANT, and SLAVE. For simplicity, the transition
probabilities are assumed to be fixed over time. P11 is the probability of
the transition (FREE®FREE) (P11=80%); P12 is the probability of
the transition (FREE®INDENTURED) (P12=20%); P13 is the probability of
the transition (FREE®SLAVE) (P13=0%; state SLAVE is not accessible from state FREE); P21 is the probability of
the transition (INDENTURED®FREE) (P21=9%); etc. The questions
resolved here are:
- How do we expect the new implicate
order to change the distribution of the people -- after one year, 10 years, 100 years,
- What percentage of the people
can be expected to become indentured in the long run?
- What percentage can be
expected to become enslaved in the long run?
Since the time-evolution, or
the history, of the people is assumed to be encoded in the transition probability
matrix, one can calculate the state of the population at any discreet point in time
(t=1,2,...,n).3 The expected long-run outcome for
the above hypothetical probability transition matrix is as follows: 18.37% of the people
remain FREE; 40.82% become INDENTURED SERVANTS; and 40.82% become SLAVES. In the long run, the great mass of
the people, about 82%, are expected to lose their freedom. The percentage of indentured
servants peaks at about 63.5%, twelve years after the new order is imposed (arrow a). (The above tabulated outcomes are
given to the nearest one-tenth of a percent.)
Sources and Notes:
1 The concept of "Universal History" -- the history of a people --
was developed by Hegel. See G.W.F. Hegel, The Philosophy of History, translated by
J. Sibree, with Prefaces by Charles Hegel and J. Sibree, and an Introduction by C.J.
Friedrich, 1956, at 1-79 (Original History, Reflective History, and Philosophical
History), especially 4 ("Universal History"), 9 ("Reason is the Sovereign
of the World"), 10 (History as unfoldment of Spirit), 13 (Providence as a
"concealed" plan), 16-17 (Science of History), 34 (Reason and Freedom), 35
(history as "struggle of passion"), 39 (the "absolute final aim" of
the State, of Laws, is the "realization of Freedom"), 54-79 (The course of the
World's History: Nature as "self-repeating cycle"; the principle of
Development), 72 (History as "development of Spirit in Time"), 73 and 77
(repetition of the same), 76 (Real vs. Ideal), and 78-79 (Spirit as "seed," and
history as the development, realization, and unfoldment of this seed).
2 Aristotle, Politics, translated by Ernest Barker, revised with an
Introduction and Notes by R.F. Stalley, 1995, at 13-14 (Slavery, 1254a13).
3 Stochastic Markov processes and related formulas are discussed in many texts;
see, for example, U. Narayan Bhat, Elements of Applied Stochastic Processes, 1984.
[Copyright © 1998 by
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|REBELLION AGAINST A DEFECTIVE
OF THE SAME VS. NEW LEGISLATURE
1: RETURN OF THE SAME
2: NEW LEGISLATURE
The rebellion voids defective contracts, frees
all the people, but does not change the essential core of the legislature. Therefore, the
transition probability matrix which enframed the old implicate order remains the
same. The power does not devolve to the people. The old legislative of lordship and bondage3 is brought back again. The old "long trail of abuses,
prevarications and artifices"4 -- the subversion of government -- repeats
|The rebellion establishes a new legislature
with a new implicate order. A new history unfolds. The government is
dissolved and the power devolves to the people. The transition from the old order to the
new order is orderly. The new order increases the sphere of opportunities for all the
people; it, therefore, increases the probability of transitions to freedom. The
probabilities of the transitions (SLAVE®INDENTURED) and (INDENTURED®FREE) increase from 9% to 50%, and from 1% to
90%, respectively. The new order is not perfect, but the long-run distribution of the
population, which was 18.4% FREE, 40.8% INDENTURED, and 40.8% SLAVE, becomes 83.2% FREE,
16.6% INDENTURED, and 0.2% SLAVE.5 The perfect implicate order is the
one where all the people are both rich and free.
a Defective Legislature: Return of the Same vs. New Legislature
This Plate illustrates the effects of
two kinds of hypothetical rebellions against a defective legislature. The initial
legislature (or implicate order) of the society is assumed to be given by the transition
probability matrix with three states (FREE MASTER, INDENTURED SERVANT, and SLAVE). This order is assumed to have
existed for 100 years. The dominion of a few masters results in the taking away and
destruction of the property1 of the great mass of the people --
too many are arbitrarily indentured or enslaved. By the year 100, about 21% of the people
(FREE MASTERS) control the remaining 79% (as INDENTURED SERVANTS, and SLAVES) (see previous Plate). The breach of trust,
mismanagement, exploitation, and corruption which are brought about by the defective
legislation lead to a Jeffersonian "bloodless revolution"2 in year 100. Two hypothetical
Scenarios are examined:
The outcomes are given to
the nearest one-tenth of a percent.
Sources and Notes:
1 See John Locke, Second Treatise of Government (1690), edited, with an
Introduction, by C.B. Macpherson, 1980, at 111.
2 For information on Jefferson's "bloodless revolution," see Willard
Sterne Randall, Thomas Jefferson, 1993, at 287-288.
3 For a philosophy of freedom and self-consciousness, see G.W.F. Hegel, Phenomenology
of Spirit (1807), translated by A.V. Miller with Analysis of the Text and Foreword by
J.N. Findlay, 1977, at 111-119 (Independence and Dependence of Self-Consciousness:
Lordship and Bondage), and 119-138 (Freedom of Self-Consciousness); see also the Analysis
4 John Locke, Second Treatise of Government, at 113.
5 Stochastic Markov processes and related formulas are discussed in many texts;
see, for example, U. Narayan Bhat, Elements of Applied Stochastic Processes, 1984.
[Copyright © 1998 by
MACROKNOW INC. All rights reserved.]